It survived, perhaps most conspicuously, in the secular form of self-reliance, moral rigor, and political localism that became, by the Age of Enlightenmentvirtually the definition of Americanism.
In England, the king was head of both church and state, bishops sat in Parliament and the Privy Council, and church officials exercised many secular functions.
The right of each congregation to elect its own officers and manage its own affairs was upheld. There was also widespread belief in witchcraft and witches—persons in league with the devil. If the ruler was evil, however, the people were justified in opposing and rebelling against him.
Economic Development Although this was true for many Puritans of the time, trade was a vital part of society as well. This doctrine was called preparationismand nearly all Puritans were preparationists to some extent. The pinnacle of achievement for children in Puritan society, however, occurred with the conversion process.
Predestination was an important aspect of Puritan faith—the idea that God predetermines who will go to Heaven and who will go to Hell.
In New England, secular matters were handled only by civil authorities, and those who held offices in the church were barred from holding positions in the civil government. In "A Discourse on the Nature of Regeneration", Stephen Charnock distinguished regeneration from "external baptism" writing that baptism "confers not grace" but rather is a means of conveying the grace of regeneration only "when the [Holy] Spirit is pleased to operate with it".
Furthermore, the sacraments would only be administered to those in the church covenant. Their belief in self-government gave them local control over both religious and political matters. The Toleration Act, passed by the English Parliament ingave Quakers and several other denominations the right to build churches and to conduct public worship in the colonies.
Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson were famous as early colonists from the Massachusetts Colony who was banished for their religious beliefs and fled to the Rhode Island.